Oceanography Curriculum Outline

by Prof. William A. Prothero, Dept. of Geological Sciences


<Curriculum Index><Weekly Assignment Outline>

IV. World Fisheries theme

A. Biological zones, productivity, and nutrient distribution

1.    What are the various basic kinds of marine life

a.     plants: phytoplankton

b.     animal

c.     relative biological mass of marine life types

2.    What are the essential conditions that support marine life?

a.     light

                                                                       i.     photosynthesis and respiration

                                                                        ii.     penetration of light into seawater

b.     nutrients

                                                                       i.     oxygen

                                                                        ii.     CO2

                                                                          iii.     nitrate

                                                                         iv.     phosphate

                                                                        v.     cycling of nutrients, food web

c.     sources and sinks of nutrients

d.     transport of nutrients

                                                                       i.     atmosphere

                                                                        ii.     ocean currents

                                                                          iii.     upwelling and mixing

                                                                         iv.     sinking and deposition

e.     Biological pump

B. Fishing issues

1.     What are the major “fisheries?”

2.     Overfishing

a.     What is “sustainable” fishing and what are the parameters that must be considered when planning a sustainable fishery?

i.      reproduction rate

ii.     harvest rate

iii.   habitat size

iv.    availability of food source

v.     others?

b.     What are some examples of species that have been overfished and what policies have been implemented to help the fisheries recover?

i.      New England Cod

ii.     sardine fishery in Peru

iii.   whale harvests

iv.    tuna and swordfish

v.     orange roughy

vi.    others?

c.     What are some of the fishing techniques that contribute to loss of species?

i.      drift nets

ii.     by-catch issues

iii.   environmental damage to habitat (trawling)

d.     What about fish farming? What are the positive and negative effects of large fish farming operations?

3.     Policies

a.     Who are the “stakeholders?”

b.     What is “tragedy of the commons?”

c.     Catch limits

d.     Marine reserves and “no take zones”

e.     Santa Barbara Channel

f.      FishBanks game